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Citations & Style Guide

Information and resources on how to cite references correctly.


ACS Style (Chemistry)

Style manual of the American Chemical Society (ACS). This is the definitive reference on citation and formatting for all chemists writing for publication. The current manual is the ACS Guide to Scholarly Communication, 2020. UNT does not have access to this book, instead see the Online Resources below.

UNT Library Books

The ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information, 3rd edition, 2006, and the ACS Style Guide in print. See Chapter 14 for citation examples and abbreviations for top journal titles, which are required in article citations. This is not the most recent manual; see the Online Resources below.

Online Resources

ACS Style Quick Guide, from the ACS Guide to Scholarly Communication, 2020. ACS is offering open access to chapter 4.3: References of the newest guide.

Citing Your Sources: ACS, a comprehensive research guide from Williams College.

CASSI (Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index). ACS style requires you to use the official CAS abbreviations for journal titles in your article citations. Look up the abbreviations in this index.


AMA Style (Medicine)

Style manual of the American Medical Association (AMA). This is the most comprehensive style guide in the medical and public health fields, and is closely related to the Uniform Requirements of the ICMJE (Vancouver style). 

UNT Library Books

American Medical Association Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (print), 9th edition, 1998. NOTE: The current edition is the 11th, 2020.

Online Resources

AMA Citation Guide, Northeast Wisconsin Technical College, citation examples from the current 11th edition.

National Library of Medicine Catalog, Journal Search. Look for a journal in this catalog to find out its abbreviation, which is required in citations of journal articles.


APSA Style (Political Science)

​Style Manual of the American Political Science Association, based on the Chicago Manual of Style and used by many American political science journals. The Revised 2018 Edition of the style manual is available online.

UNT Librar​y Books

APSA Style Manual for Political Science (print), Revised 2006 edition. NOTE: The most current edition is the Revised 2018 Edition, freely available online at the APSA website.

Online Resources

Cite Sources - APSA, Seattle Pacific University Library. Examples of in-text citations and reference list items from the Revised 2018 Edition.


ASA Style (Sociology)

Style Manual of the American Sociological Association. Used to establish uniformity and consistency in style among ASA publications and summarize basic issues on effective writing for authors in general. Largely based on the Chicago Manual of Style.

UNT Library Books

ASA Style Guide (print), 5th edition, 2014. NOTE: The current edition is the 6th edition, 2019.

Online Resources

Citing Sources: ASA, Waidner-Spahr Library, Dickinson University. Examples of in-text and reference page citations from the current 6th edition.

Preparation Checklist for ASA Contributors, American Sociological Association. This checklist based on the previous 5th edition helps you prepare the citations and formatting in your manuscripts for publication in ASA journals.  Authors are advised to check with specific journals before submitting.


CSE Style (Sciences)

Style Manual of the Council of Science Editors is the most recognized and authoritative reference for authors, editors, publishers, students, and translators in all areas of science and related fields. NOTE: CSE style allows for 3 citing systems: Citation-Sequence, Name-Year, and Citation-Name. Ask your instructor which system you should use.

UNT Library Books

Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers  (print), 7th edition, 2006. NOTE: The current edition is the 8th edition, 2014.

Online Resources

Citation Styles: CSE, 8th Edition, Murray State University Libraries. Explanation of all three citation systems and examples of book, book chapter, and journal articles citations for reference list.

CSE Citation Style Examples, Conn Library, Wayne State College. Examples of in-text and reference list citations in the Name-Year System from the 8th edition.


Harvard Referencing

Harvard referencing, also known as the Author-Date System, is an in-text citation style developed at Harvard University in the 1950s and 1960s.  Under this system, the in-text citation immediately after a paraphrased or quoted passage is the last name of the author and the year of publication only, as in (Author 2005). The citation refers the reader to the complete description of the source in the reference list, which is alphabetized by the last name of authors.

Many styles use the Author-Date System for in-text citations that refer to a reference list, e.g., APA, Chicago, MLA. Ask your instructor which style manual you should use.


NLM Style

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) citation style provides guidance for citing complicated biomedical sources. It follows recommendations and standards set by the  International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and the National Information Standards Organization (NISO).

UNT Library Book:

Citing Medicine (ebook), 2nd edition, 2007. Free access book published by the NLM.

Online Resources:

Samples of Formatted References for Authors of Journal Articles, NLM. Citation examples for books, journal articles, and other sources from Citing Medicine.


Vancouver Style

Vancouver style follows standards established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which created the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (previously "Uniform Requirements") to help authors and editors in their mutual task of creating and distributing accurate, clear, easily accessible reports of biomedical studies.

Online Resources

Sample of Formatted References for Authors of Journals, National Library of Medicine. The official site for Vancouver style citation examples according to page 18 of the Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals, revised 2019, ICMJE website.

  • The ICMJE also recommends Citing Medicine, 2nd edition, for fuller explanations of citations in Vancouver style.

National Library of Medicine Catalog, Journal Search. Vancouver style requires abbreviated journal titles from the National Library of Medicine in the reference list. Search for a journal title on this webpage to find its abbreviation.

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