Skip to main content

Citations & Style Guide

Information and resources on how to cite references correctly.


ACS Style (Chemistry)

Style manual of the American Chemical Society (ACS). This is the definitive reference for all chemists writing for publication.

UNT Library Catalog:

The ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information covers ACS citations and formatting guidelines.

It is also available as an online resource.

Additional Resources:

ACS Style Guidelines, available on the UW - Madison Libraries Web site, provides a brief guide to documenting various formats according to ACS guidelines.

Citation Guide: ACS (American Chemical Society) from the USC Libraries provides a brief overview and selected examples of citations in ACS style.


AMA Style (Medicine)

Style manual of the American Medical Association (AMA). This is the most comprehensive style guide in the medical and public health fields, and is closely related to the Uniform Requirements of the ICMJE (Vancouver style).

UNT Library Catalog:

American Medical Association Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors

Additional Resources:

AMA Citation Style, available from the Purdue OWL, provides a summary and sample citations in AMA style.

AMA Citation Quick Guide, from the UC Berkeley library, provides citation examples.


APSA Style (Political Science)

​Style Manual of the American Political Science Association, based on the Chicago Manual of Style. Used by many American political science journals. The Revised 2018 Edition of the style manual is available online.

UNT Librar​y Catalog:

APSA Style Manual for Political Science, Revised 2006 edition

Additional Resources:

APSA Style: Print and Electronic Sources, available from the Albert S. Cook Library at Towson University, provides examples of citations in APA style.


ASA Style (Sociology)

Style Manual of the American Sociological Association. Used to establish uniformity and consistency in style among ASA publications, to provide an authoritative reference source on style issues for authors who are writing for American Sociological Review and other ASA journals, and to summarize basic issues on effective writing for authors in general. Largely based on the Chicago Manual of Style.

UNT Library Catalog

The 2014 edition of the ASA Style Guide. Only print versions of ASA are available. 

Additional Resources

Formatting in Sociology (ASA Style), available online from the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, provides guidelines and examples for formatting a paper and for citing sources in ASA style.

Preparation Checklist for ASA Contributors (2010) is intended to help you prepare your manuscripts for publication in ASA journals. It covers some details of presentation and style that will be checked in copyediting if your manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors are advised to check with specific journals on guidelines for mechanics of submission (e.g., policies on electronic submissions) and to verify details on issues such as submitting blinded versus unblinded copies.

ASA Quick Style Guide, provides a very brief summary and sample citations in ASA format: 


CSE Style (Sciences)

Style Manual of the Council of Science Editors (formerly the Council of Biology Editors). The most recognized and authoritative reference for authors, editors, publishers, students, and translators in all areas of science and related fields.

UNT Library Catalog:

Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers

Additional Resources:

The CSE Quick Guide, available from the The University of Minnesota Center for Writing, provides examples of citations in CBE/CSE style.

CSE Documentation, available online from The Writing Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, provides examples of citations and bibliographies in CBE/CSE style.

Harvard Referencing

Harvard referencing, also known as the author-date system, was developed at Harvard University in the 1950s and 1960s and is now used by publishers and academics all over the world. Under this system, a source is cited in the text in parentheses immediately after the passage that is based on it, using the last name of the author and the year of publication only, as in (Author 2005). Other refinements are added for a special situation, such as multiple authors or an author with multiple publications in one year.


CiteThisForMe - Harvard Referencing Generator

A tool designed to help students prepare a whole bibliography or reference list quickly and easily. It uses the Harvard APA (Harvard Referencing), the most common referencing style in the UK.

Harvard reference or citation generator

This free Harvard reference generator can be used to create virtually every kind of reference a student may encounter. Just add the information requested (e.g., author, year of publication, the title of the article) to the form. The software will do the formatting. Note that the Harvard system of referencing is not tightly specified, and some variation in the use of capital letters, italics, the use of parentheses and text styles does occur in different institutions and journals. Please check the 'house style' that is specified for your publication, thesis, dissertation or assignment before submitting your work.

Harvard-style Reference List Writer

Using this software you can use wizards to correctly format most reference types and produce a list of references arranged alphabetically and in date order. You can choose to edit this list further or export to a Word document for saving or printing.

Harvard Reference Generator

This tool takes in raw information—author, title, year of publication—and creates the reference in the correct Harvard Reference format.

Harvard Citation Style - The George Washington University

Detailed explanation with many examples.


Vancouver Style

Vancouver style follows standards established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), which evolved out of a small group of editors of general medical journals that first met informally in Vancouver, British Columbia in 1978. The ICMJE created the Uniform Requirements primarily to help authors and editors in their mutual task of creating and distributing accurate, clear, easily accessible reports of biomedical studies.

Available Online:

Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication(ICMJE)

​Additional Resources:

Samples for Formatted References (Uniform Requirements) from the U.S. National Library of Medicine provides a brief summary and examples.

Vancouver Style Guide is available online from Monash University Library.

Additional Links