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COMM 3010: Communication Perspectives

Informative videos

[ImagineEasySolutions]. (2014, June 2). Understanding Primary & Secondary Sources [Video File]. Retrieved from

[LibraryOfCongress]. (2015, March 12). Teaching with Primary Sources [Video File]. Retrieved from

[NickStrif]. (2016, June 3). Star Wars: The Source Awakens [Video File]. Retrieved from

Primary Sources


Secondary Sources



Article critiquing the piece of art



Book about a specific subject









Review of play



Treatise on a particular genre of poetry



Essay on a treaty


Primary Sources are immediate, first-hand accounts of a topic, from people who had a direct connection with it. Primary sources can include:

Texts of laws and other original documents.

Newspaper reports, by reporters who witnessed an event or who quote people who did.

Speeches, diaries, letters and interviews - what the people involved said or wrote.

Original research.

Datasets, survey data, such as census or economic statistics.

Photographs, video, or audio that capture an event.

Secondary Sources are one step removed from primary sources, though they often quote or otherwise use primary sources. They can cover the same topic, but add a layer of interpretation and analysis. Secondary sources can include:

Most books about a topic.

Analysis or interpretation of data.

Scholarly or other articles about a topic, especially by people not directly involved.

Documentaries (though they often include photos or video portions that can be considered primary sources).

When Is A Primary Source A Secondary Source?

Whether something is a primary or secondary source often depends upon the topic and its use.

A biology textbook would be considered a secondary source if in the field of biology, since it describes and interprets the science but makes no original contribution to it.

On the other hand, if the topic is science education and the history of textbooks, textbooks could be used a primary sources to look at how they have changed over time.

Information retrieved from:  Primary Sources: A Research Guide. (2016). In Healey Library at the University of Massachusetts Boston . Retrieved October 14, 2016, from


[IBelkLibrary]. (2012, June 18). Popular and Scholarly sources [Video File]. Retrieved from

[TimothyKane]. (2016, October 23). 5 Tips to Improve Your Critical Thinking Samantha Agoos [Video File]. Retrieved from  

[TedTalks]. (2016, August 8). Why You Think You’re Right – Even if you’re Wrong| Julia Galef [Video File]. Retrieved from  

[EastTennesseeStateUniversity]. (2011, March 22). The Writing Process: Revise [Video File]. Retrieved from

[RolandSmith]. (2013, April 8). Writing is Revision [Video File]. Retrieved from

[Pattheprofessor]. (2008, January 11). Three-step revision process [Video File]. Retrieved from

[RevolutionHive]. (2014, May 26). Revision Techniques & Tips for University, School & College Students [Video File]. Retrieved from

[EditageInsights]. (2013, November 12). Tips to Avoid Accidental Plagiarism [Video File]. Retrieved from

[GuyStieglitz]. (2013, October 20). Paraphrasing: The Basic Steps [Video File]. Retrieved from

How to avoid plagiarism – good time management (don't wait until the last minute) and reference your information.

Possible consequences from plagiarism:

II. Available Academic Penalties – from 18.1.16 Student Standards of Academic Integrity

The following academic penalties may be assessed at the instructor’s discretion upon determination that academic dishonesty has occurred. Admonitions and educational assignments are not appealable.

A.            Admonition. The student may be issued a verbal or written warning.

B.            Assignment of Educational Coursework. The student may be required to perform additional coursework not required of other students in the specific course.

C.            Partial or no credit for an assignment or assessment. The instructor may award partial or no credit for the assignment or assessment on which the student engaged in academic dishonesty, to be calculated into the final course grade.

D.            Course Failure. The instructor may assign a failing grade for the course.

Should the procedure for appeal of a case of academic dishonesty extend beyond the date when the instructor submits course grades for the semester, the student will be assigned a grade that reflects the penalty, which shall be adjusted, as appropriate, at the conclusion of any appeal process.

How to Create a Gmail Account and Share Information

Create a Gmail account

To sign up for Gmail, create a Google Account.

Sign up for Gmail

It's free to create a Google Account. You can use the username and password for your Google Account to sign in to Gmail and other Google products like YouTube, Google Play, and Google Drive.

  1. Visit the Google Account creation page.
  2. Follow the steps on the screen to complete your account setup.
  3. After you've created your Google Account, you can use it to sign in to Gmail on your computer, phone, or tablet.


Share with specific people

  1. Go to
  2. From your file list in Google Drive or from an open folder: Select the name of a file or folder. At the top, click Share Share.
    Tip: You can also right-click and choose Share.
  3. Under "People" in the "Share with others" box, type the email address of the person or Google Group you want to share with. Tip: Search for contacts by typing a name in the box.
  4. To choose if a person can view, comment, or edit the file, click the Down arrow next to the text box .
  5. Click Done. The people you shared with will get an email letting them know you've shared a file or folder.
  6. From your file list in Google Drive or from an open folder: Select the name of a file or folder. At the top, click Share Share.
    Tip: You can also right-click and choose Share.

Share using a link

To share something with more than one person without entering individual email addresses, you can create a link that allows anyone to open it.

  1. Go to
  2. Select the name of a file or folder.
  3. At the top, click Get shareable link .
  4. In the corner, make sure the switch is green and to the right. A file link will be copied to your clipboard.
  5. Paste the link in an email or anyplace you want to share it.
    • To change whether a person can view, comment, or edit the file, click Sharing settings.

To stop sharing a file:

  1. At the top, click Get shareable link .
  2. Next to "Link sharing on", click the switch.

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